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Category: Legalese

Trebamo li zbilja zaključavati prava pristupa zdravstvenom kartonu?

Malo je ljudi upoznato s mogućnošću ograničavanja uvida u zdravstveni karton. To zapravo ne bi trebao biti nikakav problem kad bismo mogli očekivati da zdravstveni djelatnici drže do visokih etičkih načela i najboljih uzusa svoje struke. U uređenom sustavu korisnik se može osloniti na profesionalizam i pokloniti povjerenje mnogim profesionalcima koji brinu o nečemu što je tako važno kao korisnikovo zdravlje.

No, što kada se to povjerenje zloupotrijebi? Poznati hrvatski epidemiolog, javnosti poznat kao jedan od vodećih epidemioloških stručnjaka za vrijeme pandemije Covida, i javnosti puno manje poznat kao omiljena meta govora mržnje antivaksera i njihovih gurua od pandemije pa do danas objavio je sliku (kasnije povučena zbog konzultacije s odvjetnicima) koja pokazuje kako je njegove medicinske podatke pretraživala osoba koja za to nije bila ovlaštena.

Je li to problem? Je, to je ogroman problem. Osobni zdravstveni podaci vrlo su osjetljive informacije i ne smiju biti dostupne nikome tko nema jako dobar razlog za pristup istima. Podaci o zdravlju neke osobe koje završe u pogrešnim rukama mogu nanijeti nemjerljivu štetu toj osobi: od osude ili podsmjeha okoline pa sve do nemogućnosti dobivanja posla i razaranja obitelji.

Zato se ni sa čijim zdravstvenim podacima ne smijemo igrati. No, kao i svaki sustav i zdravstveni je sustav nesavršen, pa u njemu može biti osoba koje ni etički uzusi ni edukacija neće spriječiti da gurnu nos tamo gdje ne bi smjeli. Razloga za to može biti raznih: razlozi mogu biti političke naravi jer netko možda želi saznati kakvu prljavštinu o političkom protivniku, ili pak mogu biti osobne naravi jer se kriminalcu netko osobno zamjerio; mogu biti i financijske naravi jer je kriminalac dobio novce da iskopa podatke i preda ih naručitelju, a mogu biti i razne varijacije plemenite namjere, od iskrene želje da se nekome pomogne pa do igranja forenzičkog istražitelja koji će razotkriti kakav organizirani kriminal.

No, kako se zaštititi od takvih? I, trebamo li se zaštititi? Je li tako širok pristup našim zdravstvenim podacima uistinu opravdan i nužan, je li uopće nužan? I ako već možemo ograničiti prava pristupa jer na to imamo pravo, možemo li sami sebi napraviti štetu zbog vlastite paranoje?

Na ta pitanja nemam odgovor, niti bih ga se usudio dati. Svatko od nas ima svoje razloge i svoj medicinski karton. No bilo bi dobro znati da možete, i gdje možete svojom voljom odlučiti tko smije pristupati vašim medicinskim podacima.

Sam postupak nije kompliciran: potrebno je prijaviti se na stranicu portal.zdravlje.hr i tamo se prijaviti s odgovarajućim vjerodajnicama. Po prijavi pojaviti će se glavna radna ploča portala, a na vama je da kliknete na “postavke“:

Prikazati će se ploča s postavkama, gdje ćete uočiti postavke privatnosti:

Što izabrati? Što je više plavih izbora (“omogućeno”), to je liječnicima u sustavu lakše doći do vaših podataka. No, to isto tako znači i da je to više liječnika u mogućnosti neovlašteno pristupiti vašim podacima.

Odlučite li se mijenjati ove postavke, dobro razmislite. Ponekad je dostupnost medicinske dokumentacije od životne važnosti, pa svoje odluke donesite pažljivim vaganjem privatnosti i korisnosti u slučaju nužnosti.

  • Hitna pomoć – ne znam kako vi, ali ja želim da hitnjaci u slučaju potrebe imaju na raspolaganju sve moje zdravstvene podatke;
  • Izabrani LOM – ako njemu nećete dati pristup vašim podacima, kome ćete? Liječnik obiteljske medicine predstavlja kariku koja povezuje zdravstveni sustav i vas;
  • Svi liječnici obiteljske medicine – pa, zgodno kad vašeg LOM-a nema, ali ne i nužno – smanjite količinu znatiželjnih očiju, ali pripazite kad vaš LOM ode na godišnji odmor jer zamjena možda neće biti u mogućnosti pristupiti vašim podacima;
  • Izabrani stomatolog – zgodno, no ako koristite privatne stomatološke usluge i svog izabranog stomatologa niste nikada vidjeli…
  • Svi stomatolozi – ovo ima opravdanja u slučaju da vam treba hitna stomatološka usluga a do svog stomatologa ne možete;
  • Svi liječnici školske medicine (*) – slično kao i svi liječnici obiteljske medicine – ako imate svog školskog liječnika onda je to ta osoba, ovi ostali baš i ne (no, to može biti problem ako vaš školski liječnik ode na godišnji, pa trebate otići kod zamjene);
  • Svi liječnici medicine rada – imate li kroničnih problema vezanih uz posao, ovo će vjerojatno trebati biti omogućeno; u suprotnom baš i ne.
  • Liječnici u SKZZ i bolnicama – svi specijalisti i bolnički liječnici koji trebaju dobiti uvid u vaše medicinske podatke nalaze se ovdje. Bilo koja intervencija nakon LOM-a zahtjeva prisutnost (i pravo pristupa podacima) liječnika koji se nalazi u ovoj kategoriji. Ovo zato ima itekako smisla imati omogućeno, iako je vjerojatno gore opisani upad u privatnost nastao baš ovim putem;
  • Ljekarnici – oni vaše podatke o lijekovima imaju u CEZIH-u i ovo vjerojatno možete bez bojazni isključiti.

Polja pristupa iz EU-a ima smisla držati uključenima samo ako se liječite u inozemstvu ili često putujete unutar EU pa vam se može dogoditi da zatrebate liječničku pomoć. Ako ste više starosjedilački lokalpatriotski tip koji ne putuje daleko od vlastitog doma ove mogućnosti možete isključiti jer višestruko povećavaju broj osoba koje bi bile u prilici na nezakonit način pristupiti vašim medicinskim podacima.

Što uključiti, a što isključiti? Treba li išta uopće dirati? Odgovor nije lak. U načelu, u sustavu koji drži do etike i profesionalizma o ovome ne bismo trebali razmišljati jer bismo znali da je sustav dizajniran tako da nas maksimalno zaštiti od zlouporabe. No, pokazalo se kako sustav pati od velike manjkavosti jer podrazumjeva da zloupotrebe neće biti (ili ga naprosto nije briga). Ni ovaj se slučaj ne bi otkrio automatizmom unutar sustava jer se čini kako osim osnovnog logiranja pristupa neke finije kontrole nema.

Ovo je problem kojeg nećemo ispraviti paranoičnim zaklikavanjem postavki privatnosti u sustavu koji brine o našem zdravlju i gdje može biti i štetno, pa i fatalno napraviti kakvu glupu pogrešku zbog straha za sigurnost vlastitih medicinskih podataka. Ovo je problem sustava i sustav ga mora riješiti unutar sebe.

(*) Iz nekog razloga sustav mi daje opciju za liječnike školske medicine… drago mi je što me sustav smatra prpošnim i mlađahnim, osjećam se polaskano, rumenim se i gledam u pod – ali ta bi opcija zbilja trebala biti dostupna samo korisnicima školske dobi.

P.S. Nakon što spremite postavke i odjavite se iz sustava, učinite si uslugu i ugasite preglednik (browser). Čini se kako odjava iz sustava ne onemogućuje ponovni pristup sve dok je preglednik uključen: barem u ovom mojem pokušaju, barem danas, dogodilo mi se da sam i nakon odjave iz sustava i dalje mogao pristupati svojim podacima. Gašenje preglednika dodatni je sigurnosni korak – a to pogotovo trebate raditi na računalima koja koriste i druge osobe.

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GDPR

Privacy policy

1. Introduction

1.1 We are committed to safeguarding the privacy of our website visitors.

1.2 This policy applies where we are acting as a data controller with respect to the personal data of our website visitors; in other words, where we determine the purposes and means of the processing of that personal data.

1.3 We use cookies on our website. Insofar as those cookies are not strictly necessary for the provision of our website, we will ask you to consent to our use of cookies when you first visit our website.

1.4 Our website incorporates privacy controls which affect how we will process your personal data. You can access the privacy controls via Privacy & Cookies Policy.

1.5 In this policy, “we”, “us” and “our” refer to the owner of the web page.[ For more information about us, see Section 13.]

2. Credit

2.1 This document was created using a template from SEQ Legal (https://seqlegal.com/free-legal-documents/privacy-policy).

3. How we use your personal data

3.1 In this Section 3 we have set out:

(a) the general categories of personal data that we may process;

(b) in the case of personal data that we did not obtain directly from you, the source and specific categories of that data;

(c) the purposes for which we may process personal data; and

(d) the legal bases of the processing.

3.2 We may process data about your use of our website and services (“usage data“). The usage data may include your IP address, geographical location, browser type and version, operating system, referral source, length of visit, page views and website navigation paths, as well as information about the timing, frequency and pattern of your service use. The source of the usage data is Google Analytics. This usage data may be processed for the purposes of analysing the use of the website and services. The legal basis for this processing is our legitimate interests, namely monitoring and improving our website and services.

3.3 We may process your account data (“account data“). The account data may be processed for the purposes of operating our website, providing our services, ensuring the security of our website and services, maintaining back-ups of our databases and communicating with you. The legal basis for this processing is consent.

3.4 We may process your personal data that are provided in the course of the use of our services (“service data“). The service data may be processed for the purposes of operating our website, providing our services, ensuring the security of our website and services, maintaining back-ups of our databases and communicating with you. The legal basis for this processing is our legitimate interests, namely the proper administration of our website and business.

3.5 We may process information that you post for publication on our website or through our services (“publication data“). The publication data may be processed for the purposes of enabling such publication and administering our website and services. The legal basis for this processing is our legitimate interests, namely the proper administration of our website and business.

3.6 We may process information contained in any enquiry you submit to us regarding goods and/or services (“enquiry data“). The enquiry data may be processed for the purposes of offering, marketing and selling relevant goods and/or services to you. The legal basis for this processing is consent.

3.7 We may process information relating to our customer relationships, including customer contact information (“customer relationship data“). The customer relationship data may be processed for the purposes of managing our relationships with customers, communicating with customers, keeping records of those communications and promoting our products and services to customers. The legal basis for this processing is our legitimate interests, namely the proper management of our customer relationships.

3.8 We may process information that you provide to us for the purpose of subscribing to our email notifications and/or newsletters (“notification data“). The notification data may be processed for the purposes of sending you the relevant notifications and/or newsletters. The legal basis for this processing is consent.

3.9 We may process information contained in or relating to any communication that you send to us (“correspondence data“). The correspondence data may include the communication content and metadata associated with the communication. Our website will generate the metadata associated with communications made using the website contact forms. The correspondence data may be processed for the purposes of communicating with you and record-keeping. The legal basis for this processing is our legitimate interests, namely [the proper administration of our website and business and communications with users.

3.10 We may process any of your personal data identified in this policy where necessary for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims, whether in court proceedings or in an administrative or out-of-court procedure. The legal basis for this processing is our legitimate interests, namely the protection and assertion of our legal rights, your legal rights and the legal rights of others.

3.11 We may process any of your personal data identified in this policy where necessary for the purposes of obtaining or maintaining insurance coverage, managing risks, or obtaining professional advice. The legal basis for this processing is our legitimate interests, namely the proper protection of our business against risks.

3.12 In addition to the specific purposes for which we may process your personal data set out in this Section 3, we may also process any of your personal data where such processing is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation to which we are subject, or in order to protect your vital interests or the vital interests of another natural person.

3.16 Please do not supply any other person’s personal data to us, unless we prompt you to do so.

4. Providing your personal data to others

4.1 We may disclose your personal data to our insurers and/or professional advisers insofar as reasonably necessary for the purposes of obtaining or maintaining insurance coverage, managing risks, obtaining professional advice, or the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims, whether in court proceedings or in an administrative or out-of-court procedure.

4.2 Financial transactions relating to our website and services may be handled by our payment services providers. We will share transaction data with our payment services providers only to the extent necessary for the purposes of processing your payments, refunding such payments and dealing with complaints and queries relating to such payments and refunds. You can find information about the payment services providers’ privacy policies and practices at their respective URLs.

4.3 In addition to the specific disclosures of personal data set out in this Section 4, we may disclose your personal data where such disclosure is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation to which we are subject, or in order to protect your vital interests or the vital interests of another natural person. We may also disclose your personal data where such disclosure is necessary for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims, whether in court proceedings or in an administrative or out-of-court procedure.

5. International transfers of your personal data

5.1 In this Section 5, we provide information about the circumstances in which your personal data may be transferred to countries outside the European Economic Area (EEA).

5.2 The hosting facilities for our website might be situated outside EEA.The European Commission has made an “adequacy decision” with respect to the data protection laws of current country hosting the page.

5.3 You acknowledge that personal data that you submit for publication through our website or services may be available, via the internet, around the world. We cannot prevent the use (or misuse) of such personal data by others.

6. Retaining and deleting personal data

6.1 This Section 6 sets out our data retention policies and procedure, which are designed to help ensure that we comply with our legal obligations in relation to the retention and deletion of personal data.

6.2 Personal data that we process for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes.

6.3 Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Section 6, we may retain your personal data where such retention is necessary for compliance with a legal obligation to which we are subject, or in order to protect your vital interests or the vital interests of another natural person.

7. Amendments

7.1 We may update this policy from time to time by publishing a new version on our website.

7.2 You should check this page occasionally to ensure you are happy with any changes to this policy.

7.3 We will notify you of significant changes to this policy on our website.

8. Your rights

8.1 In this Section 8, we have summarised the rights that you have under data protection law. Some of the rights are complex, and not all of the details have been included in our summaries. Accordingly, you should read the relevant laws and guidance from the regulatory authorities for a full explanation of these rights.

8.2 Your principal rights under data protection law are:

(a) the right to access;

(b) the right to rectification;

(c) the right to erasure;

(d) the right to restrict processing;

(e) the right to object to processing;

(f) the right to data portability;

(g) the right to complain to a supervisory authority; and

(h) the right to withdraw consent.

8.3 You have the right to confirmation as to whether or not we process your personal data and, where we do, access to the personal data, together with certain additional information. That additional information includes details of the purposes of the processing, the categories of personal data concerned and the recipients of the personal data. Providing the rights and freedoms of others are not affected, we will supply to you a copy of your personal data. The first copy will be provided free of charge, but additional copies may be subject to a reasonable fee.

8.4 You have the right to have any inaccurate personal data about you rectified and, taking into account the purposes of the processing, to have any incomplete personal data about you completed.

8.5 In some circumstances you have the right to the erasure of your personal data without undue delay. Those circumstances include: the personal data are no longer necessary in relation to the purposes for which they were collected or otherwise processed; you withdraw consent to consent-based processing; you object to the processing under certain rules of applicable data protection law; the processing is for direct marketing purposes; and the personal data have been unlawfully processed. However, there are exclusions of the right to erasure. The general exclusions include where processing is necessary: for exercising the right of freedom of expression and information; for compliance with a legal obligation; or for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.

8.6 In some circumstances you have the right to restrict the processing of your personal data. Those circumstances are: you contest the accuracy of the personal data; processing is unlawful but you oppose erasure; we no longer need the personal data for the purposes of our processing, but you require personal data for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims; and you have objected to processing, pending the verification of that objection. Where processing has been restricted on this basis, we may continue to store your personal data. However, we will only otherwise process it: with your consent; for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims; for the protection of the rights of another natural or legal person; or for reasons of important public interest.

8.7 You have the right to object to our processing of your personal data on grounds relating to your particular situation, but only to the extent that the legal basis for the processing is that the processing is necessary for: the performance of a task carried out in the public interest or in the exercise of any official authority vested in us; or the purposes of the legitimate interests pursued by us or by a third party. If you make such an objection, we will cease to process the personal information unless we can demonstrate compelling legitimate grounds for the processing which override your interests, rights and freedoms, or the processing is for the establishment, exercise or defence of legal claims.

8.8 You have the right to object to our processing of your personal data for direct marketing purposes (including profiling for direct marketing purposes). If you make such an objection, we will cease to process your personal data for this purpose.

8.9 You have the right to object to our processing of your personal data for scientific or historical research purposes or statistical purposes on grounds relating to your particular situation, unless the processing is necessary for the performance of a task carried out for reasons of public interest.

8.10 To the extent that the legal basis for our processing of your personal data is:

(a) consent; or

(b) that the processing is necessary for the performance of a contract to which you are party or in order to take steps at your request prior to entering into a contract,

and such processing is carried out by automated means, you have the right to receive your personal data from us in a structured, commonly used and machine-readable format. However, this right does not apply where it would adversely affect the rights and freedoms of others.

8.11 If you consider that our processing of your personal information infringes data protection laws, you have a legal right to lodge a complaint with a supervisory authority responsible for data protection. You may do so in the EU member state of your habitual residence, your place of work or the place of the alleged infringement.

8.12 To the extent that the legal basis for our processing of your personal information is consent, you have the right to withdraw that consent at any time. Withdrawal will not affect the lawfulness of processing before the withdrawal.

8.13 You may exercise any of your rights in relation to your personal data by written notice to us.

9. About cookies

9.1 A cookie is a file containing an identifier (a string of letters and numbers) that is sent by a web server to a web browser and is stored by the browser. The identifier is then sent back to the server each time the browser requests a page from the server.

9.2 Cookies may be either “persistent” cookies or “session” cookies: a persistent cookie will be stored by a web browser and will remain valid until its set expiry date, unless deleted by the user before the expiry date; a session cookie, on the other hand, will expire at the end of the user session, when the web browser is closed.

9.3 Cookies do not typically contain any information that personally identifies a user, but personal information that we store about you may be linked to the information stored in and obtained from cookies.

10. Cookies that we use

10.1 We use cookies for the following purposes:

(a) authentication – we use cookies to identify you when you visit our website and as you navigate our website;

(b) status – we use cookies to help us to determine if you are logged into our website;

(c) personalisation – we use cookies to store information about your preferences and to personalise the website for you;

(d) security – we use cookies as an element of the security measures used to protect user accounts, including preventing fraudulent use of login credentials, and to protect our website and services generally;

(e) advertising – we use cookies to help us to display advertisements that will be relevant to you;

(f) analysis – we use cookies to help us to analyse the use and performance of our website and services; and

(g) [ookie consent – we use cookies to store your preferences in relation to the use of cookies more generally.

11. Cookies used by our service providers

11.1 Our service providers use cookies and those cookies may be stored on your computer when you visit our website.

11.2 We use Google Analytics to analyse the use of our website. Google Analytics gathers information about website use by means of cookies. The information gathered relating to our website is used to create reports about the use of our website. Google’s privacy policy is available at: https://policies.google.com/privacy.

11.3 We publish Google AdSense interest-based advertisements on our website. These are tailored by Google to reflect your interests. To determine your interests, Google will track your behaviour on our website and on other websites across the web using cookies. You can view, delete or add interest categories associated with your browser by visiting: https://adssettings.google.com. You can also opt out of the AdSense partner network cookie using those settings or using the Network Advertising Initiative’s multi-cookie opt-out mechanism at: http://optout.networkadvertising.org. However, these opt-out mechanisms themselves use cookies, and if you clear the cookies from your browser your opt-out will not be maintained. To ensure that an opt-out is maintained in respect of a particular browser, you may wish to consider using the Google browser plug-ins available at: https://support.google.com/ads/answer/7395996

12. Managing cookies

12.1 Most browsers allow you to refuse to accept cookies and to delete cookies. The methods for doing so vary from browser to browser, and from version to version. You can however obtain up-to-date information about blocking and deleting cookies via these links:

(a) https://support.google.com/chrome/answer/95647 (Chrome);

(b) https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/kb/enable-and-disable-cookies-website-preferences (Firefox);

(c) https://www.opera.com/help/tutorials/security/cookies/ (Opera);

(d) https://support.microsoft.com/en-gb/help/17442/windows-internet-explorer-delete-manage-cookies (Internet Explorer);

(e) https://support.apple.com/kb/PH21411 (Safari); and

(f) https://privacy.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-10-microsoft-edge-and-privacy (Edge).

12.2 Blocking all cookies will have a negative impact upon the usability of many websites.

12.3 If you block cookies, you will not be able to use all the features on our website.

13. Our details

13.1 This website is owned and operated by Radoslav Dejanović.

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